Melatonin 3 mg 6 Hour Timed Release 60 tabs by Life Extension
Melatonin is a potent antioxidant that defends against free radicals and helps to support glutathione activity in the neural tissue.** Melatonin could also be a promising agent for the management of glaucoma. See research section.**
- Foundation for Longer Life
- Promotes Optimal Sleep
- Dietary Supplement
Melatonin releases from the pineal gland, reaching its peak at night to help maintain healthy cell health throughout the body.82 Secretion of melatonin declines significantly with age, as the pineal gland becomes calcified.83 Jet lag, shift work, and poor vision can disrupt melatonin cycles.84-86
Melatonin keeps our circadian cycle in tune.87,88 Not only does this hormone work to maintain cell health, it appears to regulate a system of self-repair and regeneration.89-94 As melatonin diminishes with age, our biological functions are impaired.95,96 Melatonin also has strong antioxidant properties. It directly scavenges both hydroxyl and peroxyl free radicals, and it does so more effectively than most other antioxidants. It also greatly potentiates the efficiency of other endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.97 Melatonin is especially important for protecting cellular DNA against peroxynitrite damage by inhibiting peroxynitrite free radical reactions.98 Some research has found that melatonin increases the speed of falling asleep and adds to the quality of sleep in about 60% of people who use it.99-102 (See References 1)
The consequences of sleep deprivation go far beyond fatigue and diminished performance. Sleep deprivation can impact the immune system, the nervous system, memory and cognitive impairment, mood, and more.1 Ultimately, lack of sleep leads to an overall poor quality of life.
If you’re one of the more than 20 million Americans who suffer from occasional sleep problems,2 you don’t have to settle for frustrating nights of tossing and turning. A new, fast-acting liquid melatonin may enable you to take back control of your sleep.
Melatonin is well known for its ability to regulate your body’s internal clock. However, as you grow older, the secretion of melatonin declines significantly as the pineal gland becomes calcified.3,4 Fortunately, melatonin has been studied and shown to be effective for managing disturbances in circadian rhythms.5,6 A meta-analysis of 17 studies concluded that melatonin supplementation decreases the time it takes to fall asleep while increasing sleep efficiency and total sleep duration.7 In fact, melatonin has been shown to increase the speed of falling asleep—and the quality of sleep—in about 60% of people who use it.8,9
Decades of clinical research document that a good night’s rest supports nearly all systems of the body, including:
- Skin health and youthful appearance10,11
- Healthy collagen formation12
- Insulin levels already within normal range13,14
- Healthy body weight15,16
- Glucose levels already within normal range17,18
- Blood pressure already within normal range13,19
- Healthy cell division20
- Cardiovascular health21,22
- A good mood23
(See references 2)
Not all people benefit from melatonin when it’s in the form of a normal rapid-release liquid, capsule or tablet. However, some report that by using timed-release melatonin at bedtime, they are able to sleep better.
An increase in age doesn’t have to mean an increase in sleep problems. Consider making Timed-Release Melatonin a part of your healthy sleep program.
6 Hour Timed Release Melatonin
3 mg, 60 vegetarian tablets
Item Catalog Number: 01786
Dosage and Use
- Take one tablet 30 to 60 minutes before bedtime, or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner.
- Melatonin is naturally secreted from the pineal gland at night, and should be taken at night for optimal results.
|Serving Size: 1 Vegetarian Tablet|
|Amount Per Capsule||% Daily Value|
|**Daily Value not established|
Microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, aqueous film coating (purified water, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, glycerin), stearic acid, vegetable stearate, croscarmellose sodium, silica.
Store tightly closed in a cool, dry place.
Caution: Consult your healthcare provider before taking this product if you are being treated for a medical condition (especially autoimmune or depressive disorders). Use caution if combining with alcohol. This product is not intended for children, pregnant or lactating women, or women trying to become pregnant. Do not attempt to drive or operate heavy machinery after taking this product.
- Keep out of reach of children.
- Do not exceed recommended dose.
- Do not purchase if outer seal is broken or damaged.
**DISCLAIMER: Information on this page is not intended as a substitute for advice provided by a competent health care professional. You should not use this information in diagnosing or treating a health problem. No claim or opinion expressed on this web site is intended to be, nor should be construed to be, medical advice. If you are now taking any drugs, prescribed or not, or have a medical condition, please consult a competent physician who is aware of herb/drug interactions before taking any herbal supplements. The information presented herein has not been evaluated by the FDA or the Department of Health and is not intended to diagnose, prevent or treat any disease or illness.
1. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/features/important-sleep-habits
2. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/sleepdisorders/nr249104.pdf
3. Exp Gerontol. 2001 Jul;36(7):1083-100.
4. J Pineal Res. 1994 May;16(4):178-83.
5. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2006;13(3):133-44.
6. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2008 Jan;6(1-2):17-28.
7. Sleep Med Rev. 2005;9(1):41-50.
8. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1995 May;57(5):552-8.
9. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2000 Sep-Oct;28(5):325-9.
10. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Aug;117(2):309-17.
11. Bioengineering of the Skin: Skin Surface Imaging and Analysis. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC; 1997:337.
12. Med Hypotheses. 2010 Dec;75(6):535-7.
13. Obes Rev. 2009 Nov;10 Suppl 2:37-45.
14. Science. 2010 Dec 3;330(6009):1349-54.
15. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007 Dec 15;3(7):681-8.
16. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Apr;17(4):767-71.
17. Horm Res. 2007;67 Suppl 1:2-9.
18. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1129:287-304.
19. Am J Hypertens. 2010 Dec;23(12):1286-91.
20. Chronobiol Int. 2011 Feb;28(1):76-80.
21. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Jan-Feb;51(4):294-302.
22. Sleep. 2010 Aug 1;33(8):1037-42.
23. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003 Jun;57(3):265-70.
Everything You Need to Know About Melatonin
Melatonin plays several major roles in maintaining a healthy immune system: sleep regulation, powerful and unique antioxidant, and its effectiveness at raising glutathione. This page will also provide information on where this hormone is produced, how much naturally occurs in our bodies, how it is depleted, what foods have it, and considerations for supplementation.
Melatonin, known chemically as N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland located at the base of the brain that helps regulate sleep and wake cycles. This hormone is a derivative of the neurotransmitter serotonin and the amino acid tryptophan.
ROLE AS A SLEEP REGULATOR
Our bodies have their own internal clocks that help regulate the natural cycle of sleeping and waking hours (circadian rhythm) by controlling the production of melatonin. Usually, the levels of this hormone begin to rise in the mid- to late evening, remain high for most of the night, and then decline in the early morning hours. According to the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, approximately 5-25 mcg of melatonin are secreted into the blood stream of healthy young and middle-aged men at night time.
Natural production is greatly affected by light. That is why during the shorter days of the fall and winter months, melatonin production may start earlier in the day. This change can lead to symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD), or winter depression, when some people feel more tired and they need more sleep. Natural melatonin levels decline gradually after the age of thirty. Some elderly people produce very small amounts of it or none at all.
ROLE AS AN ANTIOXIDANT
Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that can cross cell membranes, cross the blood-brain barrier, and it plays a role in stimulating other antioxidants – this makes it a truely unique antioxidant. It is considered more powerful than vitamins C, E and A, because it is soluble in both fat and water and can enter cells that vitamins cannot. Unlike other antioxidants, it does not undergo redox cycling, which is the ability of a molecule to undergo repeated reduction and oxidation and regain its antioxidant properties (in other words, it cannot be recycled). That is why it is referred to as a terminal antioxidant.
Melatonin has been shown to effectively raise glutathione levels in many tissues, such as the brain, liver, blood serum and muscles.
Each antioxidant plays specific roles within our bodies. One of the roles melatonin plays is in the protection of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Of course this requires some explanation first. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is found in the nucleus and in the mitochondria of the cell. DNA is the genetic material that is responsible for determining who and what we are. Nuclear DNA is the DNA found in the nucleus of the cell. Mitochondrial DNA is found within the cell; mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Click here for more information on Mitochondrial DNA. This is a lot of in-depth information about melatonin, but it is presented to stress how important of a role it plays in protecting our health.
DNA repair is a vital role in our health. The oxidative stress producing free radicals damages our DNA. The DNA is surprisingly resilient but it can function properly when damaged only to a certain degree. At some point, the damage becomes too severe and the cell starts duplicating itself uncontrollably. Our body recognizes this as a foreign cell (cancer or tumor) and attacks it. If our body’s attack is successful we are never aware it occured. But if it is not successful we develop cancer. So, melatonin repairing DNA before it gets to this severe point is vitally important to the success of immune system in keeping our bodies cancer and tumor free.
As an antioxidant melatonin is a potent scavenger of free radicals. It has been studied extensively for the treatment of cancer, immune system disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, autism, cardiovascular disease, and depression.
ROLE IN HEALING
Most of us know that we heal the fastest when we sleep: why? The answer to this question is not a straightforward answer. But a big part of the answer has to do with glutathione, antioxidants and melatonin.
Antioxidants eliminate free radicals and in cases like melatonin and glutathione, antioxidants can also repair DNA. So what is the relationship of these three things and how do they affect the healing proses when we sleep?
To start, when we lack an antioxidant or are low on specific antioxidants, glutathione takes on their role (job so to say) of eliminating free radicals. This tends to deplete glutathione supplies in the body, which then inhibits or slows down all the other roles that glutathione plays in our body – detoxification, DNA repair, recycling other antioxidants, transfer of energy from mitochondria to the cell, food for the immune system and as an immune system regulator.
When melatonin is produced, as an antioxidant it frees up glutathione (this is proven clinically). With the freeing up of glutathione, glutathione is then free to perform its other roles. Two of the most important roles are food for the immune system and toxin removal. The healing process is greatly inhibited by the presence of pathogens and toxins. So while this answer is not direct, by following the path of antioxidants, melatonin and glutathione, and understanding the interactive role they have with one another, we can see how melatonin production increases glutathione and in turn speeds the healing process.
WHAT DEPLETES NATURAL MELATONIN PRODUCTION?
Of great interest are the studies about the effect of light pollution on the production of melatonin and as a result, the impact on the metabolism, immune function, endocrine balances and the development of cancers.
Light pollution is the brightening of the sky at night by artificial lightning of highways, streets, malls, stadiums, homes, etc., also called urban sky glow. Retinal ganglion cells responsible for detecting light and suppressing melatonin production are most sensitive to blue/violet light.
The 2007 review published in the Journal of Pineal Research states that human exposure to low-level incandescent lightning for only 39 minutes suppresses melatonin levels upto 50%. As we stated above, melatonin stimulates Glutathione synthesis. Constant light exposure leads to melatonin deficiency which leads to decreased tissue Glutathione peroxidase activity and the promotion of oxidative stress.
Current evidence suggests, as noted in the review The dark side of light, exposure to the high levels of artificial light at night may play a role in cancer risk. Studies have indicated that melatonin exerts a direct effect on tumor growth and proliferation, and the increased risk of cancer was observed in patients with the brightest bedrooms. Multiple studies have documented a link between night shift work and an increased incidence of breast cancer.
Read the full text of this review here: “The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and ecological consequences” by Kristen J. Navara and Randy J. Nelson. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
Another factor that reduces melatonin production is certain drugs: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) or naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve); beta-blocker blood pressure medications such as atenolol (Tenormin) or metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol); and medications that reduce levels of vitamin B6 in the body (such as birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy, loop diuretics, hydralazine, or theophylline).
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE CONSIDERING
MELATONIN AS A SUPPLEMENT
The use of melatonin supplements became quite popular some 15+ years ago as a way of treating insomnia, jet lag, SAD, chronic cluster headaches, sleep regulation in people who work evening or night shifts and sleep-wake cycle training in blind people (because they do not have the perception of light and darkness).
- Melatonin supplements can be of animal/bovine origin (made from ground pineal glands of cows or sheep) and synthetic (man-made):
- Melatonin of animal or bovine origin, even though called natural, is very unsafe because it can be infected with bacteria or viruses. Due to these risks this type of melatonin supplement is no longer available over the counter.
- Like all unnatural products, the use of the synthetic form of melatonin has side effects and should not be used without consulting a healthcare professional, even though this supplement is available without prescription in the USA. Many countries, for example in Europe, prohibit over the counter melatonin and other hormone supplements.
- Daily dosages of synthetic melatonin vary greatly depending on the age and the medical condition of a person and typically are in the range of 0.25-10 milligrams (the most common doses are 2-5 mg) to be taken 30-120 minutes before bedtime.
- Even the smallest dose of synthetic melatonin is much higher than the amount normally circulating in the blood stream at night time. Since human blood contains approximately 5-25 mcg of melatonin at night, even the smallest available dose of 0.25 mg of synthetic melatonin is 10-50 times (!) higher than what is normally found in the blood.
- The studies have also shown that the highest doses of 10 mg/day (400 times higher than normal) do not produce better results than 0.25 mg/day. The most commonly used doses of 2-5 mg/day are thus 80-200 times higher than normally found in the blood. It is always good to remember that melatonin is a hormone and like with all hormones such excessive amounts may produce undesirable health results.
- Side effects from synthetic melatonin may include: abnormal heart rhythms, high blood pressure, confusion, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, dizziness, sleepiness, irritability, headache, mood changes, depression, hormonal effects, hypothermia, itching, heaviness in the head, seizures, sleepwalking, stomach problems, vivid dreams, morning grogginess, and reduced sperm count.
- Synthetic melatonin is absolutely prohibited to be used during breastfeeding and is inadvisable to be used by pregnant women, children, people with autoimmune diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, epilepsy, stroke, and by those taking other drugs or consuming alcohol. Studies have shown that these side effects are rare in healthy people with short-term use of no more than three months, taking not more that 3 mg of synthetic melatonin a day.
WHAT FOODS CONTAIN MELATONIN?
The best food sources of melatonin are goji berries, raspberries and tart cherries (not sweet cherries, not dried cherries). These foods contain amounts that are able to have a positive effect on health.
This information is very important if you are looking for natural ways to improve quality of sleep and add a powerful antioxidant to your diet but are unwilling to experiment with synthetic forms of melatonin.
Studies that we reviewed used various measurement units for melatonin in foods: mcg, ng, pg per 1 gram, 100 grams or per ounce. We standardized them all in nanograms (ng) per 100 grams.
According to the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, approximately 5-25 mcg of melatonin circulate in the blood stream of healthy young and middle-aged men at night time. If we take an average of 15 mcg which equals 15,000 ng this number can serve us as a comparison to foods with melatonin.
Original source: http://www.thehealersjournal.com/2013/04/08/foods-high-in-melatonin/
|Tart (sour) cherry juice concentrate||17,535|
|Tart (sour) cherries||1,350|
|Underripe banana (pulp)||31.40|
|St. John’s wort||19.61|
|Ripe banana (pulp)||18.50|
|Concord grapes (skin)||3.24|
|Red grapes (pulp)||2.27|
|Red grapes (whole)||1.94|
|Concord grapes (pulp)||1.92|
|Concord grapes (whole)||1.71|
|Red grapes (skin)||1.42|
* dry tissue, except for tart cherries and tart cherry juice concentrate
** average number – reported amounts were 90.7-450 ng/100g
*** average number – reported amounts were 13-29 ng/100g
Tart (sour) cherries, especially the Montmorency variety, have been shown to have a large concentration of melatonin – such a significant amount that it is actually enough to produce positive results in the body according to Dr. Reiter who conducted research on tart cherries.
As you can see, other foods with melatonin have much smaller amounts of it compared to goji berries, raspberries and tart cherries (or tart cherry juice concentrate which can be used as a natural sleep aid and pain reliever).