L-Taurine Powder 300 grams by Life Extension

L-Taurine Powder

300 grams (10.58 oz.)
Item Catalog Number: 00133

Taurine Facts

  • Taurine is the most abundant amino acid you’ve never heard of; it is found throughout the body, but especially in tissues containing excitable cells, like nerves and heart muscle.
  • Taurine is believed to play a role in treating a number of conditions, including congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, diabetes, and retinal damage.
  • Taurine is an important antioxidant in the body, especially in the retina of the eye.
  • Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that certain groups with the longest life spans consume higher amounts of taurine than those of us in the rest of the world. David reminds you that diet and lifestyle are the most important factors shared among the groups with the longest life spans. They eat a primarily plant-based diet and they walk a lot. See the Blue Zones research for more info.
  • Taurine supplementation can prevent diabetes and obesity in animal models, and can mitigate the effects of both conditions in humans.
  • Taurine supplementation strengthens heart muscle cells, extends their life spans, and protects them from damage, while reducing many of the factors that produce atherosclerosis and its deadly consequences.
  • Taurine protects retinal and inner ear cells from damage, normalizing the flow of calcium ions they require for proper function.
  • Evidence is growing for taurine’s role in preventing epileptic seizures and liver disease, two conditions that can be attributed to toxic effects on delicate tissue.
  • Taurine appears to exert potent protections against glutamate-induced injury to neurons.
    Taurine can promote optimal blood flow to nerve tissue.
  • If you are interested in a longer, healthier, and more active life, Life Extension recommends supplementing with taurine. David recommends meditation, a plant-based diet, and exercise.
  • Isolated amino acids like L-taurine are nutraceuticals. Treat them with the respect you would treat a pharmaceutical. They can be very powerful, and sometimes that is exactly what we need. But consuming these isolated amino acid supplements is not the same as eating foods due to the isolated and potent ingredients.

Go to L-taurine articles below
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Life Extension L-Taurine Supplement Facts

Serving Size 1/4 level teaspoon (750 mg)

Servings Per Container about 400

Amount Per Serving

L-Taurine

750 mg

Other ingredients: none.

This product contains NO milk, egg, fish, peanuts, crustacean shellfish, soybeans, tree nuts, wheat, yeast, gluten, corn, or rice. Contains NO sugar, and no artificial sweeteners, flavors, colors, or preservatives.

Dosage and Use

Mix 1/4 level teaspoon daily in water or juice, or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner.

Warnings
    • KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN
    • DO NOT EXCEED RECOMMENDED DOSE
    • Do not purchase if outer seal is broken or damaged
    • When using nutritional supplements, please consult with your physician if you are undergoing treatment for a medical condition or if you are pregnant or lactating

To report a serious adverse event or obtain information, contact 1-866-280-2852

 

LEF References

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L-Taurine Articles:

A powerful antioxidant

Taurine is an important antioxidant in the body, and especially high amounts are found in the retina of the eye. Deficiencies of taurine are known to cause retinal lesions and visual deterioration, which can be reversed with dietary taurine.

Taurine, a sulphur-containing amino acid, is produced from the conditionally essential amino acid L-cysteine by the body. It is the most abundant intracellular amino acid in humans, and is found particularly throughout the excitable tissues of the central nervous system, where it is thought to have a regulating influence.205,206 Taurine can promote optimal blood flow to nervous tissue.

The amino acid L-taurine prevents glutamate excitotoxicity which is relevant to glaucoma. Here are four supporting references (thanks to FitEyes member William):

  • http://www.fasebj.org/content/18/3/511.long
  • http://www.jneurosci.org/content/19/21/9459.full.pdf
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2994407/
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23968934

One of the studies William cited says, "We show that taurine, a β-amino acid found at high concentrations in the brain, protects chick retinal neurons in culture against the neurotoxicity of Aβ and glutamate receptor agonists."

Another study says, "We conclude from these data that ... taurine prevent[s] glutamate excitotoxicity."

A third study says, "Taurine appears to exert potent protections against glutamate-induced injury to neurons."

Taurine also appears to play an important role in many physiological processes, such as osmoregulation, immunomodulation and bile salt formation.207

Recent studies suggested that taurine might have neuro- and cardioprotective properties and provide protection against oxidative stress.207-210 Taurine is also critical for maintaining cardiac health in certain aging individuals. Dietary taurine may help maintain healthy liver function.211 However, it is deficient in many diets212-218 and may not be sufficiently produced by the body in certain disease states.108-114*

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Taurine

Article by Robert Nussenblatt, MD

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is the decarboxylation product of cysteine, and is mainly obtained from diet. It is a free sulfur ß-amino acid found in animal tissue and is one of the most abundant low molecular weight compounds, present in the micromolar range per gram wet weight. While the body can make taurine from sulfur precursers, it is produced endogenously in the liver from methionine and cysteine. Enzymes that are needed for taurine production include cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, which is the rate limiting step in the cascade leading to taurine.(Militante & Lombardini 2004) However, the amount produced is insufficient and dietary sources are needed. Taurine is found freely in the cytosol and is found particularly in the heart, retina, brain and blood.

Taurine has been associated with many different physiologic activities, including calcium transport, antioxidation, neurotransmission, and regulation of protein phosphorylation.(Huxtable & Sebring 1986) It should be added that the dominant role of taurine still needs to be determined. Significant changes in plasma and tissue levels occur in aging rats.(Wallace & Dawson 1990) These decreases are noted in the eye as well (Eppler & Dawson 2001) and may be due to a decrease in liver biosynthetic enzymes. Of interest is that withdrawing taurine from the diet of animals does not enhance the decrease; yet augmenting the exogenous amount of taurine helps to resolve the deficit. However these observations are in the rat. In the human, the data is less robust. What has been shown is that taurine concentrations increase in the cerebrospinal fluid of aging humans (Tohgi et al. 1993), and by upwards of 30%.

As with other tissues, taurine is found in high concentrations in phagocytic cells. It is believed to provide protection against inflammatory cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant activity, and membrane stabilization. Taurine appears to mediate these effects by eliminating highly toxic HOCL and generating non-toxic TauCl. TauCl appears to suppress the production of many inflammatory mediators, including NO, TNF-alpha, IL-1, Il-2, and IL-6. It appears to suppress production of IL-10 as well, which is a downregulatory cytokine.(Schuller-Levis & Park 2004; Kim & Cha 2009) It would appear that taurine in phagocytes prevents chronic inflammatory processes. The underlying mechanisms in macrophages appears to be the inhibition of NO by the suppression of the activation of several factors, including Ras, ERK1/2, and NF-kB. In neutrophils, taurine appears to exert an inhibitory effect by inhibiting p47phox and the assembly of the NADPH-oxidase complex. (Kim & Cha 2009)

Taurine appears to play an important in ocular development. It appears structurally similar to the neurotransmitters GABA and glycine. Taurine plays a role aslo in the formation and maintenance of neural tissue. Kittens given taurine-deficient diets exhibited retinal degeneration and CNS defects.(Sturman 1986).

Interestingly, taurine increased the numbers of rod photoreceptors in retinal culture.(Altshuler et al. 1993) It appears to act in retinal progenitors via the GlyRa2 subunit containing glycine receptors.(Young & Cepko 2004)

As noted above, levels in animals decrease with aging, and specific ERG changes in rats can be associated with these decreased tissue levels, reflecting the fact that the retina has a decreased ability to deal with oxidative stress.(Militante & Lombardini 2004)

Exogenous taurine administration may be helpful in preventing age related changes in the retina.(Militante & Lombardini 2004)

Taurine concentrations seem to be markedly decreased in injured photoreceptors of dogs with glaucoma.(Madl et al. 2005)

Taurine transformed rat retinal ganglia are protected from hypoxia-induced apoptosis, probably through the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction.(Chen et al. 2009).

One report in a small number of rabbits suggested that when topically applied 0.5% timolol was mixed with several amino acids, including taurine, the IOP decrease in the rabbit eye was greater than with timolol alone. (Olah & Veselovsky 2007)

Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

Froger N1, Cadetti L, Lorach H, Martins J, Bemelmans AP, Dubus E, Degardin J, Pain D, Forster V, Chicaud L, Ivkovic I, Simonutti M, Fouquet S, Jammoul F, Léveillard T, Benosman R, Sahel JA, Picaud S.

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Abstract

Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease.

More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug.

We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs.

Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity.

Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water.

This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

PMID: 23115615
PMCID: PMC3480351
PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e42017. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042017. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

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References to Robert Nussenblatt, MD article:

Altshuler D, JJ Lo Turco, J Rush & C Cepko (1993): Taurine promotes the differentiation of a vertebrate retinal cell type in vitro. Development 119: 1317-28.

Chen K, Q Zhang, J Wang, F Liu, M Mi, H Xu, F Chen & K Zeng (2009): Taurine protects transformed rat retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. Brain Res 1279: 131-8.

Eppler B & R Dawson, Jr. (2001): Dietary taurine manipulations in aged male Fischer 344 rat tissue: taurine concentration, taurine biosynthesis, and oxidative markers. Biochem Pharmacol 62: 29-39.

Huxtable RJ & LA Sebring (1986): Towards a unifying theory for the actions of taurine. TIPS 7: 481-485.

Kim C & YN Cha (2009): Production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in phagocytes is regulated by taurine chloramine. Adv Exp Med Biol 643: 463-72.

Madl JE, TR McIlnay, CC Powell & JR Gionfriddo (2005): Depletion of taurine and glutamate from damaged photoreceptors in the retinas of dogs with primary glaucoma. Am J Vet Res 66: 791-9.

Militante J & JB Lombardini (2004): Age-related retinal degeneration in animal models of aging: possible involvement of taurine deficiency and oxidative stress. Neurochem Res 29: 151-60.

Militante J & JB Lombardini (2004): Age-related retinal degeneration in animal models of aging: possible involvement of taurine deficiency and oxidative stress. Neurochem Res 29: 151-60.

Olah Z & J Veselovsky (2007): Rabbit's intraocular pressure after instillation of timolol and aminoacid lysine, arginine, glycine or taurine mixture. Bratisl Lek Listy 108: 283-6.

Schuller-Levis GB & E Park (2004): Taurine and its chloramine: modulators of immunity. Neurochem Res 29: 117-26.

Sturman JA (1986): Nutritional taurine and central nervous system development. Ann N Y Acad Sci 477: 196-213.

Tohgi H, S Takahashi & T Abe (1993): The effect of age on concentrations of monoamines, amino acids, and their related substances in the cerebrospinal fluid. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect 5: 215-26.

Wallace DR & R Dawson, Jr. (1990): Decreased plasma taurine in aged rats. Gerontology 36: 19-27.

Young TL & CL Cepko (2004): A role for ligand-gated ion channels in rod photoreceptor development. Neuron 41: 867-79.

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