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- Of interest to glaucoma patients due to potential to reduce eye pressure and protect optic nerve cells.
- Stimulates the release of insulin and uptake of calcium in pancreatic cells leading to improved insulin sensitivity**
- Assists in pain management**
- Decreases blood pressure**
- Inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO) for antidepressant effects**
- Simulates the release of catecholeamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine) for stress management**
Agmatine is a relatively new compound in the dietary supplement market that is gaining popularity. So why is Agmatine useful and why do some refer to it as a "Super Arginine"?
Amatine is a metabolic byproduct of Arginine produced through a process called decarboxylation. Agmatine is basically Arginine with the carboxylic acid end removed. Agmatine produces the byproducts Guanidino-butyladehyde and the polyamines putruscene, spermine, and spermidine which are involved in cell growth. Agmatine is found in tissues throughout the body.
Of relevance to glaucoma, agmatine is synthesized and stored astrocytes, glial cells in the brain and spinal cord, which provide structural and metabolic support to the nervous system and play a critical role in glaucoma pathogenesis. Agmatine acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator with a vast array of actions in the body.
Agmatine's ability to inhibit the two isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), which is neurotoxic to retinal ganglion cells in the eye, while enhancing eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), which has a vasodilating effect and improves blood flow to the optic nerve is of interest to glaucoma patients.
In addition to promoting overall health, Agmatine Sulfate is believed to possess numerous ergogenic benefits, among them; increased luteinizing and growth hormone production, possibly improved testosterone production in men, improved exercise performance and post exercise recovery, and improved insulin sensitivity.
Agmatine's influence on calcium update in pancreatic cells leading to the improved insulin sensitivity. Agmatine binds to imidazoline receptors providing analgesia and assisting in pain management. It binds to alpha2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors of endothelial cells increasing nitric oxide (NO) production thereby decreasing blood pressure. Agmatine inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO) leading to antidepressant effects. It simulates the release of catecholeamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine) assisting in stress management. It increases release of gnrh from the hypothalamus, stimulating secretion of IH/FSH which could increase testosterone production in the testes. It inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS), specifically iNos and nNos. It improves kidney function through stimulation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).**
As an adult dietary supplement, take 1 serving mixed with 4 to 6 ounces (120-180 mL) of water 30 minutes prior to training. Optimal intake may be 1 serving twice a day. NOTE: Because contents may settle during shipment, one should shake container before use. As moisture and humidity can cause clumping and discoloration, shake and stir contents before each use.
Not for use by anyone under the age of 18. Consult your physician before using this or any dietary supplement or if you have, or have a family history of, including but not limited to; high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias, heart, liver, kidney, thyroid, or psychiatric disease, diabetes, asthma, recurrent headaches, aneia, peptic ulcers, difficulty in urinating, prostate enlargement, or seizure disorder, or if you are using a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), prescription drug, or over-the-counter drug. DO NOT USE IF PREGNANT OR NURSING. Discontinue use and contact your health care provider if you experience any adverse reaction. Use in conjunction with a sensible diet and exercise. Store in a cool dry place. Keep Out Of Reach Of Children.
**DISCLAIMER: Information on this page is not intended as a substitute for advice provided by a competent health care professional. You should not use this information in diagnosing or treating a health problem. No claim or opinion expressed on this web site is intended to be, nor should be construed to be, medical advice. If you are now taking any drugs, prescribed or not, or have a medical condition, please consult a competent physician who is aware of herb/drug interactions before taking any herbal supplements. The information presented herein has not been evaluated by the FDA or the Department of Health and is not intended to diagnose, prevent or treat any disease or illness.
Information from a FitEyes discussion:
Implications for glaucoma
Agmatine sulfate is a biogenic amine derived from the amino acid arginine, which may be beneficial for glaucoma. It inhibits the two isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), which is neurotoxic to RCGs, while enhancing eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), which has a vasodilating effect and improves blood flow to the optic nerve. It has been shown to lower IOP when applied topically.
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is the hallmark of glaucoma. Studies by Hong and colleagues showed that agmatine protected RGCs in vitro from apoptosis caused by exposure to hypoxic conditions or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) ( and references therein). The authors further reported  that 6 weeks of daily topical applications of agmatine to hypertensive rat eyes could significantly lower intraocular pressure and reduce RGC loss. These studies indicate potential for agmatine treatment in glaucoma.
The following articles highlight its possible application for glaucoma:
Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line
Ocular hypotensive effects of topically administered agmatine in a chronic ocular hypertensive rat model
The following paper provides a wealth of information on its history and applications (PDF):
Agmatine: clinical applications after 100 years in translation
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